How the new Covid-19 vaccines work

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The new generation of vaccines against messenger-RNA and viral vectors differs significantly from the traditional vaccines developed by the pioneering French scientist Louis Pasteur in the 19th century. Here’s a look at their work.

The European Union is preparing to launch a major vaccination campaign against Covid-19, days after the UK and the United States opened the way. In France, Health Minister Olivier Véran said the first vaccines would be applied from Sunday, December 27, in nursing homes.

Both the modern vaccine and the one developed by Pfizer and BioNTech are known as messenger RNA – or mRNA – vaccines.

Click the player above to see how they work.